Research

Umar, A., Mayes, K., Markantonakis, K.: Performance variation in host-based card emulation compared to a hardware security element. Mobile and Secure Services (MOBISECSERV), 2015 First Conference on. p. 1-6 (2015).Abstract
Traditionally, card emulation mode in Near Field Communication devices makes use of a hardware Secure Element (SE) as a secure storage and execution environment for applications. However, a different way of card emulation that bypasses the SE has emerged, referred to as Host-based Card Emulation (HCE). HCE relies on the phone CPU for processing power, sharing it with other running processes. This produces variable readings in terms of response times from the phone. This paper investigates this variability in HCE implementation as compared to an SE implementation. We also discuss how our findings may call into question the use of HCE in time critical scenarios.
Akram, R.N., Markantonakis, K., Sauveron, D.: A novel consumer-centric card management architecture and potential security issues. Information Sciences. - (2015). WebsiteAbstract
Abstract Multi-application smart card technology has gained momentum due to the Near Field Communication (NFC) and smart phone revolution. Enabling multiple applications from different application providers on a single smart card is not a new concept. Multi-application smart cards have been around since the late 1990s; however, uptake was severely limited. \{NFC\} has recently reinvigorated the multi-application initiative and this time around a number of innovative deployment models are proposed. Such models include Trusted Service Manager (TSM), User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (UCOM) and GlobalPlatform Consumer-Centric Model (GP-CCM). In this paper, we discuss two of the most widely accepted and deployed smart card management architectures in the smart card industry: GlobalPlatform and Multos. We explain how these architectures do not fully comply with the \{UCOM\} and GP-CCM. We then describe our novel flexible consumer-centric card management architecture designed specifically for the \{UCOM\} and GP-CCM frameworks, along with ways of integrating the \{TSM\} model into the proposed card management architecture. Finally, we discuss four new security issues inherent to any architecture in this context along with the countermeasures for our proposed architecture.
Hili, G., Cobourne, S., Mayes, K., Markantonakis, K.: Practical Attacks on Virtual Worlds. In: Lopez, J., Ray, I., and Crispo, B. Risks and Security of Internet and Systems. p. 180-195. Springer International Publishing (2015). Website
Mansor, H., Markantonakis, K., Mayes, K.: CAN Bus Risk Analysis Revisit. In: Naccache, D. and Sauveron, D. Information Security Theory and Practice. Securing the Internet of Things. p. 170–179. Springer (2014). WebsiteAbstract
In automotive design process, safety has always been the main concern. However, in modern days, security is also seen as an important aspect in vehicle communication especially where connectivity is very widely available. In this paper, we are going to discuss the threats and vulnerabilities of a CAN bus network. After we have considered a number of risk analysis methods, we decided to use FMEA. The analysis process allowed us to derive the security requirements of a CAN bus. Experimental setup of CAN bus communication network were implemented and analysed.
Tunstall, M., Markantonakis, K., Sauveron, D., Mayes, K.: Smart Cards. In: Bidgoli, H. Handbook of Technology Management. John Wiley & Sons (2009).
Abughazalah, S., Markantonakis, K., Mayes, K.: Secure Improved Cloud-Based RFID Authentication Protocol. To be published in the 9th DPM International Workshop on Data Privacy Management. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2014).Abstract
Although Radio Frequency IDentifi cation (RFID) systems promise a fruitful future, security and privacy concerns have affected the adoption of the RFID technology. Several studies have been proposed to tackle the RFID security and privacy concerns under the as- sumption that the server is secure. In this paper, we assume that the server resides in the cloud, which might be insecure. Hence, the tag's data might be prone to privacy invasion and attacks. Xie et al. proposed a new scheme called cloud-based RFID authentication, which aimed to address the security and privacy concerns of RFID tag's data in the cloud. In this paper, we showed that Xie et al. protocol is vulnerable to reader impersonation attacks, location tracking and tag's data privacy invasion. Therefore, we proposed a new protocol that guarantees that the tag's data in the cloud are anonymous, and cannot be compro- mised. Furthermore, the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication between all the entities participating in a communication session, such as a cloud server, a reader and a tag. Finally, we analysed the proposed protocol informally and formally using a privacy model and CasperFDR. The results indicate that the proposed protocol achieves data secrecy and authentication for RFID tags.
Abughazalah, S., Markantonakis, K., Mayes, K.: Secure Mobile Payment on NFC-Enabled Mobile Phones Formally Analysed Using CasperFDR. Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 2014 13th IEEE International Conference on. IEEE Computer Society (2014).Abstract
Near Field Communication (NFC) mobile phones can be used as payment devices and can emulate credit cards. Although NFC mobile services promise a fruitful future, several issues have been raised by academics and researchers. Among the main concerns for the use and deployment of NFC-enabled mobile phones is the potential loss of security and privacy. More specifically, mobile phone users involved in a payment transaction conducted over a mobile handset require that such a system does not reveal their identity or any sensitive data. Furthermore, that all entities participating in the transaction are legitimate. To this end, we proposed a protocol that meets the mobile user' requirements. The proposed protocol attempts to address the main security concerns and protects the customer privacy from any third party involved in the transaction. We formally analysed the protocol using CasperFDR and did not find any feasible attacks.
Akram, R.N., Markantonakis, K., Sauveron, D.: Collaborative and Ubiquitous Consumer Oriented Trusted Service Manager. In: Liu, Y. The 13th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (IEEE TrustCom-14). IEEE CS (2014).Abstract
Near Field Communication (NFC) enables a mobile phone to emulate a contactless smart card. This has reinvigorated the multiapplication smart card initiative. Trusted Service Manager (TSM) is an entity that is trusted by all stakeholders in the proposed and trialled NFC-based smart card ecosystem. However, TSM-based models have the potential to create market segregation that might lead to limited or slow adoption. In addition, all major stakeholders (e.g. Telecom and banks) are pushing for their own TSM models and this might hinder deployment. In this paper we present a Collaborative and Ubiquitous Consumer Oriented Trusted Service Manager (CO-TSM)-based model that combines different TSM models while providing scalability to the overall architecture. In addition, our proposal also provides flexibility to both consumers and application providers. To support our proposal, we present a core architecture based on two contrasting approaches: the Issuer Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (ICOM) and the User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (UCOM). Based on the core architecture, we then describe our proposal for an application download framework and a secure channel protocol. Finally, the implementation experience and performance measurements for the secure channel protocol are discussed.
Kyrillidis, L., Mayes, K., Chazalet, B., Markantonakis, K.: Card-present Transactions On The Internet Using The Smart Card Web Server. 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (IEEE TrustCom-13). p. 611-619. IEEE Computer Society, Melbourne, Australia (2013).Abstract
Purchasing over the Internet is not limited to traditional computers, and nowadays a person is able to shop from her mobile equipment. However, identity theft and credit/debit card fraud deter some potential customers, or limit their activity. Customers' privacy is threatened in several ways, including malware that directly targets their computers/mobile equipment and from attacks that target merchant infrastructure and databases. In this paper we propose a new way for a user to pay for goods ordered online, which is based on the use of a Smart Card Web Server (SCWS), hosted either on a phone Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) or in a traditional credit/debit card. It would mean that a customer never submits card details via the Internet and is only required to remember a PIN, and for merchants the responsibility to store/protect customer card details is avoided. Overall the privacy for customer data is enhanced by this proposal.
Kyrillidis, L., Hili, G., Cobourne, S., Mayes, K., Markantonakis, K.: Virtual World Authentication Using the Smart Card Web Server. In: Thampi, S. Communications in Computer and Information Science, International Symposium on Security in Computing and Communications (ISSCC 2013). Springer-Verlag, Mysore, India (2013).Abstract
Virtual Worlds (VWs) are persistent, immersive digital environments, in which people utilise digital representation of themselves. Current management of VW identity is very limited, and security issues arise, such as identity theft. This paper proposes a two-factor user authentication scheme based on One Time Passwords (OTPs), exploiting a Smart Card Web Server (SCWS) hosted on the tamper-resistant Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) within the user's mobile phone. Additionally, geolocation attributes are used to compare phone and PC locations, introducing another obstacle for an attacker. A preliminary security analysis is done on the protocol, and future work is identified.
Akram, R.N., Markantonakis, K., Mayes, K.: Rethinking the Smart Card Technology, Invited Paper. In: Tryfonas, T. and Askoxylakis, I. 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Springer (2014).Abstract
Creating security architectures and processes that directly interact with consumers, especially in consumer electronics, has to take into account usability, user-experience and skill level. Smart cards provide secure services, even in malicious environments, to end-users with a fairly straightforward limited usage pattern that even an ordinary user can easily deal with. The way the smart card industry achieves this is by limiting users' interactions and privileges on the smart cards they carry around and use to access different services. This centralised control has been the key to providing secure and reliable services through smart cards, while keeping the smart cards fairly useable for end-users. However, as smart cards have permeated into every aspect of modern life, users have ended up carrying multiple cards to perform mundane tasks, making smart card-based services a cumbersome experience. User Centric Smart Cards (UCSC) enable users to have all the services they might be accessing using traditional smart cards on a single device that is under their control. Giving "freedom of choice" to users increases their privileges, but the design requirement is to maintain the same level of security and reliability as traditional architectures while giving better user experience. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges faced by the UCSC proposal in balancing security with usability and "freedom of choice", and how it has resolved them.

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